Infusing the teaching of critical and creative thinking into elementary instruction

The visual representation of knowledge — especially when it is closely coordinated with verbal representation, as in the proposed model for ISM — can be a powerful tool for facilitating a deeper, more sophisticated understanding of conceptual organization.

This familiarity will also make it easier to connect with and to effectively utilize the large amount of thinking that has been done about the methods of science and their application to education.

The technique of lesson design and instruction that results is called "infusing critical and creative thinking into content instruction.

For example, an improved knowledge of science-as-process can be used to gain an increase in knowledge of science-as-content. The featured skills and processes of critical and creative thinking are analyzed for use in lesson design. Compared with a skill, a process "is broader in scope, and takes a longer time to complete.

A Framework for Curriculum and Instruction. This explicit analysis into specific skills makes it more likely that, in the classroom, teachers will direct students' attention to the individual aspects of creative thinking.

From the late s to the present, K teachers in a wide variety of schools throughout the United States—and indeed in other countries—have restructured the way they teach standard content to infuse instruction in a variety of thinking skills, using those early teachers' work as models.

Part four addresses creative thinking and provides sample lessons and reproducible materials on generating possibilities and creating metaphors.

The results have been impressive. Despite their superficial differences, however, all three frameworks agree about the characteristics and importance of creative thinking and critical thinking and conceptual learning and all agree that we can teach these skills more effectively, and we should.

In science these frames can be described in terms of thinking skills: Part three focuses on understanding, retention, and clarifying ideas. In restructuring the use of the Chicken Little story with the goal of integrating teaching for the same critical thinking skills that Kevin works into his discussion of the Battle of Lexington, Cathy, of course, organizes her teaching in a grade appropriate way using grade appropriate materials.

Over 30 fully developed model lessons are featured including lesson plans, supplemental instructional materials, graphic organizers for student and teacher use, suggested answers, and assessment procedures. Suggestions for a multitude of curriculum contexts in which to construct infused lessons are also included.

If IDM is used in a wide variety of areas, then especially when teachers call attention to the transitive logic that "if science uses IDM and history uses IDM and music uses IDM, then the methods of thinking used in science and history and music are related" students will recognize that much of what they are learning in one area of school can be transferred to other areas and can be used in practical real-life situations.

Suggestions for a multitude of curriculum contexts in which to construct infused lessons are also included. With this formulation, one way to explicitly articulate "the substance of the frames and their interrelationships" — and to pursue the educational benefits that may ensue — is to show how the frames operate in the context of science.

In this chapter I describe a contrasting approach to helping students improve their thinking: Because it is designed to make a direct connection with teachers — "this handbook presents a teacher-oriented approach to improving student thinking that blends sound theory and effective classroom practice" — the overall framework in Infusion of Thinking is simpler, with three categories of skills Clarification and Understanding, Creative Thinking, and Critical Thinking plus two types of objectives Decision Making and Problem Solving.

Chapter 4 Infusing Critical and Creative Thinking into Content Instruction

Another level of integration occurs when IDM provides a "common context" by showing that similar thinking skills and methods are used in a wide variety of activities. Elaborating "involves adding details, explanations, examples, or other relevant information from prior knowledge in order to improve understanding.

Robert Swartz director of the National Center for Teaching Thinking and Sandra Parks, in their book on Infusing the Teaching of Critical and Creative Thinking into Elementary Instruction, emphasize the importance of thinking skills, and then explain their approach to instruction: Part four addresses creative thinking and provides sample lessons and reproducible materials on generating possibilities and creating metaphors.

May also be available online. This chapter is designed to establish the groundwork for these tasks by discussing some of the key things we learn from the process of infusion, especially as it has been implemented in classrooms in the United States.

Good thinking is essential in a technologically oriented, multicultural world. All four frameworks are mutually supportive, and these approaches along with others could be creatively blended to form an effective cooperative team, operating synergistically to improve education by curriculum development and in the classroom.

Teachers can use this lesson-design handbook in constructing their own infused lessons. To be successful, both of these enterprises must be motivated and carried forth from within the school and school district.

Organizing Skills are used to "arrange information so it can be understood or presented more effectively. The book also contains lesson-observation and lesson-planning forms along with detailed instructions for their use.

The framework for thinking skills employed by Swartz and Parks is similar to that in Dimensions of Thinking, but is distinctive in important ways. Techniques to teach for metacognition and transfer are illustrated, and their use in infusion lessons explained. As defined in Dimensions of Thinking, the Focusing Skills deal primarily with defining the objective s that will motivate and guide all actions during the process of design.

As discussed above, there is a close connection between the thinking skills and methods in IDM and in Dimensions of Thinking: No part of this publication—including the drawings, graphs, illustrations, or chapters, except for brief quotations in critical reviews or articles—may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from ASCD.

Because elaboration is the process of "adding If you like this page, you may also like the following related pages: More information about the National Center for Teaching Thinking, an organization devoted to helping teachers improve the way they teach thinking skills, is available at their websitewhich includes What is Infusion?.

Infusing the Teaching of Critical and Creative Thinking into Content Instruction: A Lesson Design Handbook for the Elementary Grades.

Chapter 4 Infusing Critical and Creative Thinking into Content Instruction

Critical Thinking Press and Software, PO BoxPacific. Infusing the Teaching of Critical and Creative Thinking into Content Instruction [microform]: A Lesson Design Handbook for the Elementary Grades / Robert J. Swartz and Sandra Parks Distributed by ERIC Clearinghouse [S.l.] Free Download Infusing The Teaching Of Critical And Creative Thinking Into Content Instruction A Lesson Design Handbook For The Elementary Grades Book PDF Keywords Free DownloadInfusing The Teaching Of Critical And Creative Thinking Into Content Instruction A Lesson Design Handbook For The Elementary Grades Book PDF, read.

Chapter Infusing Critical and Creative Thinking into Content Instruction. by Robert J. Swartz. The movement to bring the explicit teaching of thinking into the classroom stimulated the creation of a variety of special courses and programs for students during the s.

1 INFUSING EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION IN CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS INTO SECONDARY SCHOOL HISTORY Robert Swartz Arguments between people, neighbors, governments, happen all too frequently in this.

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Infusing the teaching of critical and creative thinking into elementary instruction
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Infusing Critical and Creative Thinking into Content Instruction