Orthography and source

Most natural languages developed as oral languages, and writing systems have usually been crafted or adapted as ways of representing the spoken language. In this respect, spelling in writing Orthography and source print is a bit like pronunciation in speech. Its alphabet comprises thirty-three letters, representing thirty-eight phonemes and an additional sign: Some languages use diacritics to distinguish between a digraph and a sequence of individual letters, and others require knowledge of the language to distinguish them; compare goatherd in English.

A glottal is not an apostrophe, an accent grave or the tick mark next to the semicolon on your keyboard.


Languages with highly phonemic orthographies often lack or rarely use a word corresponding to the English verb "to spell" because the act of spelling out words is rarely needed Orthography and source pronunciation of a word is generally sufficient to convey its spelling.

English has been changing for the last thousand years, and as the language changes, so parts of it get stuck with different spellings.


These changes for the most part did not detract from the rule-governed nature of the spelling system; but in some cases they introduced confusing inconsistencies, like the well-known example of the many pronunciations of ough rough, through, though, trough, plough, etc.

Rough and ruff; meet and meat; great and grate. They may also be used to write languages with no previous written form. These examples assume a more-or-less standard non-regional British English accent. Hence the identical spellings of the three different vowel sounds in love, grove and prove are due to ambiguity in the Middle English spelling system, not sound change.

Many English words retain spellings that reflect their etymology and morphology rather than their present-day pronunciation.

One of the main reasons for which spelling and pronunciation deviate is that sound changes taking place in the spoken language are not always reflected in the orthography, and hence spellings correspond to historical rather than present-day pronunciation. Nowadays, the ligatures have been generally replaced in British English by the separated digraph ae and oe encyclopaedia, diarrhoea ; but usually economy, ecology, and in American English by e encyclopedia, diarrhea; but usually paean, amoeba, oedipal, Caesar.

By the 19th century, most words had set spellings, though it took some time before they diffused throughout the English-speaking world. Many writing systems combine features of more than one of these types, and a number of detailed classifications have been proposed.

Sometimes, the rules of correspondence are more complex and depend on adjacent letters, often as a result of historical sound changes as with the rules for the pronunciation of ca and ci in Italian and the silent e in English.

In the course of this, he proposed a number of simplifications in spelling. There are a number of contributing factors. In order to maintain a phonemic orthography such a system would need periodic updating, as has been attempted by various language regulators and proposed by other spelling reformers.

Dialects[ change change source ] The other reason that alphabets never exactly fit languages is dialect. The original sense of the word, though, implies a dichotomy of correct and incorrect, and the word is still most often used to refer specifically to a thoroughly standardized, prescriptively correct, way of writing a language.


The Spelling-to-sound correspondences section below presents a summary of pronunciation variations. And English also has other problems:. The concept of orthography (a term that derives from the Greek words orthos, meaning "right or true," and graphein, meaning "to write") was not something that really concerned people until the introduction of the printing press in England in the second half of the 15th century.

Used Occasionally. orthography is one of the most commonly used words in the Collins dictionary View orthomolecular; All ENGLISH words that begin with 'O' Source.

Definition of orthography from the Collins English Dictionary. Irregular verbs. Irregular verbs are verbs that do not form the past simple tense and the past participle by.

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Get latest updates about Open Source Projects, Conferences and News. *ORTHOGRAPHY* [Through FRENCH [1] and LATIN [2] from GREEK orthographĂ­a correct writing]. *1.* A term for CORRECT [3] or accepted WRITING and SPELLING [4] and for a normative set of conventions for writing and especially spelling.

In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) Spellings of loanwords often adhere to or are influenced by the orthography of the source language (as with the English words ballet and fajita, from French and Spanish respectively).

With some loanwords, though, regularity is retained either by. Orthography is (1) the practice or study of correct spelling; (2) the study of letters and how they are used to express sounds and form words.

Orthography and source
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